By Saul McLeodupdated March 20, Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a motivational theory in psychology comprising a five-tier model of human needs, often depicted as hierarchical levels within a pyramid. Needs lower down in the hierarchy must be satisfied before individuals can attend to needs higher up.

From the bottom of the hierarchy upwards, the needs are: physiological, safety, love and belonging, esteem, and self-actualization. Table of contents. This five-stage model can be divided into deficiency needs and growth needs. The first four levels are often referred to as deficiency needs D-needsand the top level is known as growth or being needs B-needs. Deficiency needs arise due to deprivation and are said to motivate people when they are unmet.

Also, the motivation to fulfill such needs will become stronger the longer the duration they are denied. For example, the longer a person goes without food, the more hungry they will become.

Maslow initially stated that individuals must satisfy lower level deficit needs before progressing on to meet higher level growth needs. When a deficit need has been 'more or less' satisfied it will go away, and our activities become habitually directed towards meeting the next set of needs that we have yet to satisfy.

These then become our salient needs. However, growth needs continue to be felt and may even become stronger once they have been engaged. Growth needs do not stem from a lack of something, but rather from a desire to grow as a person. Once these growth needs have been reasonably satisfied, one may be able to reach the highest level called self-actualization.

Every person is capable and has the desire to move up the hierarchy toward a level of self-actualization. Unfortunately, progress is often disrupted by a failure to meet lower level needs.

Life experiences, including divorce and loss of a job, may cause an individual to fluctuate between levels of the hierarchy.

Therefore, not everyone will move through the hierarchy in a uni-directional manner but may move back and forth between the different types of needs. Maslowstated that people are motivated to achieve certain needs and that some needs take precedence over others. Our most basic need is for physical survival, and this will be the first thing that motivates our behavior. Once that level is fulfilled the next level up is what motivates us, and so on. Physiological needs - these are biological requirements for human survival, e.

If these needs are not satisfied the human body cannot function optimally. Maslow considered physiological needs the most important as all the other needs become secondary until these needs are met.

People want to experience order, predictability and control in their lives. These needs can be fulfilled by the family and society e. For example, emotional security, financial security e.Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a theory in psychology proposed by Abraham Maslow in his paper "A Theory of Human Motivation" in Psychological Review. Maslow subsequently extended the idea to include his observations of humans' innate curiosity.

His theories parallel many other theories of human developmental psychologysome of which focus on describing the stages of growth in humans.

He then created a classification system which reflected the universal needs of society as its base and then proceeding to more acquired emotions. Maslow's hierarchy of needs is used to study how humans intrinsically partake in behavioral motivation.

This means that in order for motivation to arise at the next stage, each stage must be satisfied within the individual themselves.

Additionally, this theory is a main base in knowing how effort and motivation are correlated when discussing human behavior. Each of these individual levels contains a certain amount of internal sensation that must be met in order for an individual to complete their hierarchy. Maslow's theory was fully expressed in his book Motivation and Personality. Maslow's classification hierarchy has been revised over time. The original hierarchy states that a lower level must be completely satisfied and fulfilled before moving onto a higher pursuit.

However, today scholars prefer to think of these levels as continuously overlapping each other. This means that the lower levels may take precedence back over the other levels at any point in time. Maslow's theory emerged and was informed by his work with Blackfeet Nation through conversations with elders and inspiration from the shape and meaning of the Blackfoot tipi.

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However, Maslow's theory has been criticized for misrepresenting the Blackfoot worldviewwhich instead places self-actualization as a basis for community-actualization and community-actualization as a basis for cultural perpetuity, the latter of which exists at the top of the tipi in Blackfoot philosophy. Maslow's hierarchy of needs is often portrayed in the shape of a pyramid with the largest, most fundamental needs at the bottom and the need for self-actualization and transcendence at the top.

In other words, the theory is that individuals' most basic needs must be met before they become motivated to achieve higher level needs. The most fundamental four layers of the pyramid contain what Maslow called "deficiency needs" or "d-needs": esteem, friendship and love, security, and physical needs.

If these "deficiency needs" are not met — except for the most fundamental physiological need — there may not be a physical indication, but the individual will feel anxious and tense. Maslow's theory suggests that the most basic level of needs must be met before the individual will strongly desire or focus motivation upon the secondary or higher-level needs. Maslow also coined the term " metamotivation " to describe the motivation of people who go beyond the scope of the basic needs and strive for constant betterment.

The human brain is a complex system and has parallel processes running at the same time, thus many different motivations from various levels of Maslow's hierarchy can occur at the same time. Maslow spoke clearly about these levels and their satisfaction in terms such as "relative", "general", and "primarily". Instead of stating that the individual focuses on a certain need at any given time, Maslow stated that a certain need "dominates" the human organism. The physiological need is a concept that was derived to explain and cultivate the foundation for motivation.

This concept is the main physical requirement for human survival.In he became head of the psychology department at Brandeis University Waltham, Massachusettswhere he remained until In his major works, Motivation and Personality and Toward a Psychology of BeingMaslow argued that each person has a hierarchy of needs that must be satisfied, ranging from basic physiological requirements to love, esteem, and, finally, self-actualization.

As each need is satisfied, the next higher level in the emotional hierarchy dominates conscious functioning. Maslow believed that truly healthy people were self-actualizers because they satisfied the highest psychological needs, fully integrating the components of their personalityor self. Abraham Maslow. Info Print Cite. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree See Article History.

Alternative Titles: Abraham H. Maslow, Abraham Harold Maslow. Get exclusive access to content from our First Edition with your subscription. Subscribe today. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. With Sartre, no less a humanist, the tone was one of responsibility. History at your fingertips.

Sign up here to see what happened On This Dayevery day in your inbox! Email address. By signing up, you agree to our Privacy Notice.A complete scientific track record is in my Curriculum Vitae which I am trying to keep up to date.

To quickly search for my recent preprints on arxiv. The current and past members of my research group are listed here. Walk or mail: OfficeCarl R. I am a physicist by training and often use statistical physics-based modeling techniques.

I particularly love simple-yet-rich "bottom-down" models. My research has applications in big data analysis in genomics and systems biology, medicine, synthetic biology and metabolic engineering of biofuels, epidemiology of pathogens and infectious diseases, etc.

The new rule explored in Marriage biorxiv is that microbes tend to utilize multiple nutrients not simultaneously as is often assumed in the current models but sequentially in a preference order determined by their regulatory networks. Stable states in this model can be explained using decades-old game theory research: the "stable marriage" or stable allocation problem awarded the Nobel Prize in economics in In JCP we presented a general theoretical and numerical analysis of the problem of autocatalysis of polymers capable of template-assisted ligation and driven by cyclic changes in the environment.

Our central result is the existence of the first order transition between the regime dominated by free monomers and that with a self-sustaining population of sufficiently long polymers. Another key result is the emergence of the kinetically limited optimal sequence overlap length between a template and its two substrates.

This work was continued in Polymer biorxiv where we demonstrated that due to the competition for monomers, only a small subset of polymer sequences survives. That is to say, no matter how large is the monomer alphabet size - Z, only 2 L out of Z L possible polymer sequences of length L would survive.

Mathematically, this rule for polymers is very similar to the competitive exclusion principle in microbial ecosystems, according to which the number of surviving species in a steady state of a single-layer ecosystem cannot be larger than the number of nutrients they feed on. We are interested in collapse-driven population dynamics of microbial ecosystems exposed to predation by their viruses bacteriophages.

In Sci. Reports, we identified the optimal "well-tempered" strategy for lytic-lysogenic transition used by temperate phages in fluctuating environments.

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In PRE we explored how an epidemics of a possibly benign pathogen spreading in one species can jump to another and trigger its catastrophic population collapse. The take home message here is that we humans should be afraid of any abundant species with which we share pathogens think rats, bats, etc. This line of research is relevant for the analysis of metagenomics data and for bioenergy applications such as e. It also has implications for epidemiology. We found two principal regimes in bacterial evolution and identify two composite parameters that dictate the evolutionary fate of bacterial species.

In the divergent regime, characterized by either a low recombination frequency or strict barriers to recombination, cohesion due to recombination is not sufficient to overcome the mutational drift.

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As a consequence, the divergence between pairs of genomes in the population steadily increases in the course of their evolution.

The species lacks genetic coherence with sexually isolated clonal sub-populations continuously formed and dissolved. In contrast, in the metastable regime, characterized by a high recombination frequency combined with low barriers to recombination, genomes continuously recombine with the rest of the population.

The population remains genetically cohesive and temporally stable. Notably, the transition between these two regimes can be affected by relatively small changes in evolutionary parameters.

In PNAS we developed a suite of computational methods for analyzing Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms SNP within this basic genome and separating vertically inherited, clonal segments from recombined horizontally transferred ones. For closely related pairs of E. Our results implicate generalized transducing phages in horizontal transfer of genomic segments between E.

Biomedical applications of our findings include understanding the emergence and spread of pathogenic bacterial strains e. Our model explained a number of trends in properties of these networks with genome size. These insights into modular properties of bacterial genomes and networks are important for bioengineering and biomedical applications. To this end we came up with a computational algorithm predicting the minimal biosynthetic pathway to add to the existing metabolic network of an organism so that it can synthesize a desired target metabolite.Systems Biology Knowledgebase is aimed to integrate and make broadly accessible everything we know or can learn about plants and microbes from the genetic and molecular to the organism and systems level.

The BNL-led effort concentrates on genotype-to-phenotype relations and complex biomolecular networks in plants. Research in the Maslov lab is focused on selected topics in systems, computational, and evolutionary biology with particular emphasis on large-scale properties of complex biomolecular networks.

These networks operate inside living cells on multiple levels including protein-protein binding interactions, transcriptional regulation, signaling, metabolic reactions, etc. We are interested in a broad range of questions including:. High-throughput experimental data describing these interactions are often noisy and incomplete.

Statistical physics with its emphasis on scaling laws, general trends and correlations has many of the right tools to approach this type of data. In addition to genome-scale network models Maslov lab is also interested in detailed understanding of temporal dynamics of relatively small pathways tens of genes. For example, Dr. One of ten national laboratories overseen and primarily funded by the Office of Science of the U.

Department of Energy DOEBrookhaven National Laboratory conducts research in the physical, biomedical, and environmental sciences, as well as in energy technologies and national security. Brookhaven Lab also builds and operates major scientific facilities available to university, industry and government researchers. Brookhaven is operated and managed for DOE's Office of Science by Brookhaven Science Associates, a limited-liability company founded by the Research Foundation for the State University of New York on behalf of Stony Brook University, the largest academic user of Laboratory facilities, and Battelle, a nonprofit applied science and technology organization.

Because you are not running JavaScript or allowing active scripting, some features on this page my not work. BNL People. Biology Department. Research Interests Research in the Maslov lab is focused on selected topics in systems, computational, and evolutionary biology with particular emphasis on large-scale properties of complex biomolecular networks. How topological properties of these networks affect their functioning inside living cells Nucleic Acids ResearchPhys. Direct ?

Evolutionary capacitance and control of protein stability in protein-protein interaction networks. PLoS Computational Biology. Pang T. Universal distribution of component frequencies in biological and technological systems. USA, 15 Grilli J. Joint scaling laws in functional and evolutionary categories in prokaryotic genomes. Nucleic Acids Research 40 2 A toolbox model of evolution of metabolic pathways on networks of arbitrary topology.

PLoS Comput. PubMed Heo M. Topology of protein interaction network shapes protein abundances and strengths of their functional and nonspecific interactions.

USA, 10 Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a theory by Abraham Maslowwhich puts forward that people are motivated by five basic categories of needs: physiological, safety, love, esteem, and self-actualization. In order to better understand what motivates human beings, Maslow proposed that human needs can be organized into a hierarchy.

This hierarchy ranges from more concrete needs such as food and water to abstract concepts such as self-fulfillment. According to Maslow, when a lower need is met, the next need on the hierarchy becomes our focus of attention. These are the five categories of needs according to Maslow:. These refer to basic physical needs like drinking when thirsty or eating when hungry. Maslow considered physiological needs to be the most essential of our needs. Another example of a physiological need would be the need for adequate sleep.

Our safety needs are apparent even early in childhood, as children have a need for safe and predictable environments and typically react with fear or anxiety when these are not met.

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Maslow pointed out that in adults living in developed nations, safety needs are more apparent in emergency situations e. According to Maslow, the next need in the hierarchy involves feeling loved and accepted. This need includes both romantic relationships as well as ties to friends and family members.

It also includes our need to feel that we belong to a social group. For example, having social connections is related to better physical health and, conversely, feeling isolated i.

Our esteem needs involve the desire to feel good about ourselves.

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

According to Maslow, esteem needs include two components. The first involves feeling self-confidence and feeling good about oneself. The second component involves feeling valued by others; that is, feeling that our achievements and contributions have been recognized by other people.

Self-actualization refers to feeling fulfilled, or feeling that we are living up to our potential. One unique feature of self-actualization is that it looks different for everyone.This will be the second game of the season between these two teams. In the first, the Hornets lost 123-120, unable to cover as 6. Walker scored a game-high 47 points and also had six rebounds and five assists.

The game finished with a total of 243 points, which was 44. Chicago had a rate of 10. Charlotte ranks second in rebounds per game (47. The Bulls average 31. The Hornets rank 27th in three pointers allowed per game (32.

Abraham Maslow

The Hornets rank first in points off turnovers allowed per game (14. Charlotte ranks second in fast break points allowed per game (8. Charlotte leads the league with 9. During their last five games, the Hornets have scored an average of 98.

Tags charlotte hornets Chicago BullsThe Creighton Bluejays (6-2) matchup against the Nebraska Cornhuskers (7-3) at CenturyLink Center Omaha on Saturday night.

At home, Charlotte is 8-4 ATS with 7 unders and 5 overs. In games where they allow under 100 points, Charlotte is 5-1 and Chicago is 2-5. When scoring over 100 points, the Hornets are 9-6 and the Bulls are 2-6. Charlotte ranks 15th in points in the paint per game (43. The Bulls rank 18th in assists per game (22. Charlotte ranks 20th in blocks per game (4. The Hornets rank fifth in steals allowed per game (7.

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Explained

Bettings Trends: In their last five games, Chicago is 2-2-1 ATS with 3 unders and 2 overs. Charlotte is 1-4 ATS with 3 unders, 1 over and 1 push over their last five games. The game can be seen on ESPN at 9:30 p. ET on Friday, December 8, 2017. The Celtics will be looking for similar success after defeating the Dallas Mavericks in their last outing, 97-90.

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Al Horford had a solid performance for Boston, finishing with 17 points, eight rebounds and eight assists. The Spurs forced 18 turnovers and had an offensive rebounding percentage of 30. With 16 points and seven rebounds, Rudy Gay had a solid performance for San Antonio. San Antonio ranks second in defensive efficiency (101. Boston heads into the contest with records of 22-4 straight up (SU) and 19-6-1 against the spread (ATS).

Vegas has been spot on when setting the total of Celtics games, with an even split between overs and unders. Meanwhile, San Antonio is 17-8 SU and 13-10-2 ATS.


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